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Ecology

    Ecology

     We live on a very beautiful planet  on the Earth. Our planet has  very
rich resources: the bright blue of the sky,  fresh,  crystal-clear  mountain
lake  water,  the  rich  green  of  the  mountains  slopes,   wild   flower,
picturesque views  all these sceneries of nature fill us with admiration.
     Thats why those who live in cities prefer spending their days off  and
their holidays far from the noise of the  city,  to  be  closer  to  nature.
Perhaps they like to breathe fresh air or to swim  in  clear  water  because
the ecology is not so poor as in the cities.
     Ecology is the study  of  the  ways  in  which  organisms  (plants  and
animals) depend upon each other and upon their surroundings.  Each  organism
requires conditions in order to be able to live and breed. These  conditions
are its environment by changing the ecological conditions.
      So, pollution is one of the most burning  problems  of  nowadays.  Now
millions of chimneys, cars, buses, trucks all over the world  exhaust  fumes
and harmful  substances  into  the  atmosphere.  These  poisoned  substances
pollute everything: air, land, water, birds and animals people.  So,  it  is
usually hard to breathe in the large cities where  there  are  lots  plants.
Everything there is covered with soot and dirt. All these affect  harmfully.

      Water pollution is very serious,  too.  Ugly  rivers  of  dirty  water
polluted with factory waste, poisoned fish are all-round  us.  And  polluted
air and poisoned water lead to the end of the civilization. So,  nowadays  a
lot of dead lands and lifeless areas have appeared. Because our actions  and
dealings can turn the land to a desert.
      So, we see that our environment offers an abundance of subject  matter
for discussion. The problems and prospects of the blue planet  interest  not
only scientist  and  futurologists,  but  also  politicians,  industry,  the
public  and above all, young people! There is hardly a young person who  is
not conserved with the preservation of our  natural  habitat.  To  recognize
environmental problems and master them, to reduce  and  avoid  environmental
pollution, to discover and develop ecologically sound technologies    there
are the essential building blocks for our future.
      Whether scientist or politicians, bankers or student,  whether  Greek,
Norwegian, Hungarian or Finn  all are encouraged  to  make  a  contribution
towards protecting the environment. Dedication and  the  courage  to  change
ones way of thinking are called for.
       We are to stop pollution. So,  we  can  grow  plants  and  trees,  to
purify waste, to start urgent campaigns in  order  to  preserve  environment
For example, in 1989 in Australia, Sydney.  In  a  year  the  same  kind  of
action was held all over Australia and it was called  Clean  up  Australia
the following years 110  countries  hold  the  similar  actions  within  the
ecological program of the UNO.
       Nowadays there are many different pressure and  interests  groups  in
British, which try to find solutions to the problems  of  pollution  at  the
national and international level. So  they  are  groups  of  people  with  a
common interest in trying  to  draw  the  public  attention  to  environment
problems, to influence the government decisions.
       Greenpeace is a very famous pressure group.  It  started  functioning
in 1971. Its headquarters are at Amsterdam, but it operates in 25  countries
worldwide. The aim of Greenpeace is to protect  wildlife  of  toxic  wastes,
nuclear tests.
       Friends of the Earth (FoE) is one of the  British  pressure  groups
with an international  reputation.  Its  general  aim  is  to  conserve  the
planets resources and reduce pollution. FoE was  established  in  1971  and
now it operated in 44 countries worldwide. It campaigns among other  things,
for recycling and renewable energy, and  the  destruction  of  wildlife  and
habitat. The main campaigning issues of the FoE are:
 . The protection of all animals and plants in danger of extinction.
 . An end to the destruction of wildlife and habitats.
 . A program of energy conservation measures, etc.
      So, a number of campaigns resulted in:
 . The ban or other hunting in England and Wales
 . And indefinite delay in the construction of the Commercial East  Breeder
   Reactor, etc.
      But not only great groups can influence the problem of pollution. So,
different people have their own opinions on this problem:
 . The continued pollution of the  earth,  if  unchecked,  well  eventually
   destroys the fitness of this planet as  a  place  for  human  life.  (B.
   Commoner).
 . The Earth has enough for every mans need,  but  not  for  mans  greed.
   (Ganlui).
     And I agree with them because it is really so. And  terrible  examples
prove them.
     The Baltic Sea is a special case. Because it is such a small  sea  and
it becomes dirty very easily. Its waster changes slowly through the shallow
straits. As many as 250 rivers run into the Baltic. There are  hundreds  of
factories in these rivers and millions of people live along them.  Quite  a
lot of big cities lie on its coast. All  these  combined  with  the  active
navigation of the sea naturally affects the state of the sea water and  the
shore line flora and fauna. People suffer from the waster pollution; cancer
deaths increase peoples concern.
      And there is no escape from this ecological crisis without organizing
a single body dealing  with  the  environmental  problems,  developing  and
carrying out a nationwide  program  of  environmental  protection  and  co-
operating with international schemes.

                               Population Fears.

       Scientists now predict that by the year 2050 the population will  be
doubled what is today. The fact remains that the rate  of  food  production
fell behind population growth in many of developing countries.  The  annual
fish catch already exceeds  what  the  world  s  oceans  can  successfully
sustain. If we go on using our natural recourses at todays rates, we  will
have used up the intire reserves of cooper, natural gas and oil by the year
2054.
      But the problem ahead lie not so much in what we use but in  what  we
waste. What faces us is not so  much  a  recourse  crisis  as  a  pollution
crisis. The only solution is to try to change  the  areas  of  consumption,
technology and population. Changes in technology must be  baked  by  slower
population growth. And it can  be  achieved  by  education  in  health  and
womens rights. And there is a little hope of reducing consumption over the
next half century.

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