Сочинения по английскому языку:
The history of Russian science and culture abounds in great names
in all fields of science and arts — the humanities, biology,
chemistry, physics, mathematics, music, dance, painting etc. Of all
the famous Russian scientists, there are some whose contribution to
the world science is the most significant one. Among them is Nikolai
Yegorovich Zhukovsky (1847—1921), a famous name in the field of
manned flight. He was a Russian scientist, founding father of modern
aero — and hydrodynamics. Whereas contemporary scientists didn't
take the idea of human flight seriously, Zhukovsky was the first to
undertake the study of airflow.
Another great name in the field of human flight was K.
Tsiolkovsky, a rocket scientist and pioneer of cosmonautics.
Firstly, he created the theory of space flight and is considered the
father of human space travel. He was the first to calculate that a
multistage rocket fuelled by liquid oxygen and hydrogen is required
to leave the Earth. Among his works are designs of multistage
boosters, space stations biological systems to provide food and
oxygen for space colonies. Secondly, his works influenced and gave
an impetus to the works of German and American scientists on space
exploration, thus forming the foundation of the modern theory of
Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev (1834—1907) was a Russian chemist who
is credited as being the primary creator of the first version of the
periodic table of elements. Unlike other contributors to the table,
Mendeleyev predicted the properties of elements yet to be
discovered. As he attempted to classify the elements according to
their chemical properties, he noticed patterns that led him to
postulate his Periodic Table.
Another scientist who I believe contributed greatly to the world
science is Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, a Russian physiologist and
physician (1849—1936). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology
or Medicine for research pertaining to the digestive system. He is
widely known for first describing the phenomenon now known as
classical conditioning in his experiments with dogs. He established
the basic laws for the establishment and extinction of what he
called "conditional reflexes' — i.e., reflex responses, like
salivation, that only occurred conditional upon specific previous
experiences of the animal.
The history of Russian literature and arts is full of outstanding
people who contributed to the world's artistic treasure-house. To
name only a few, they are Pushkin, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy in
literature, Savrasov, Repin, Serov, Vrubel and many others in arts.
Pushkin is popularly known to be the greatest Russian poet and
writer of all times, and the founder of modern Russian literature.
He is named the sun of Russian poetry' and is known to have
pioneered the use of vernacular speech in his poems and plays and
created a style of storytelling, mixing drama, romance, and satire,
associated with Russian literature ever since and greatly
influencing Russian writers. Critics consider many of his works
One of the Russian writers whose name is known to most people is
F. Dostoevsky, who was born in 1821 and died in 1881. He is
considered by many to be a giant of Russian and world literature.
Firstly, he is famous for his understanding of the human soul and
his interest in sin and redemption. Secondly, he is famous for his
powerful but humorless style.
Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1828—1910) was a Russian novelist,
social reformer, moral thinker. Tolstoy is widely known as one of
the greatest of all novelists, particularly famous for his
masterpieces War and Peace and Anna Karenina; the two books stand at
the peak of realistic fiction. As a moral philosopher he was notable
for his ideas which influenced such twentieth-century figures as
Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King.
(For painters, see Additional Topics.)
Of many outstanding British people I admire Admiral Nelson, Sir
Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin most.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) was a British admiral
famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in
the Battle of Trafalgar, where he lost his life. He became the
greatest naval hero in the history of the United Kingdom and is one
of the most famous naval commanders in world history. His biography
by the poet Robert Southey appeared in 1813, while the wars were
still being fought. He is honoured by the London landmark of
Nelson's Column, which stands in Trafalgar Square.
Sir Isaac Newton (1643—1727) was an English physicist,
mathematician, astronomer, inventor, who is regarded as one of the
most influential scientists in history. Newton described universal
gravitation and the three laws of motion which formed the basis for
classical mechanics. He was the first to show that the motion of
bodies on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same
natural laws. The unifying power of his laws was integral to the
Charles Robert Darwin (1809—1882) was a British naturalist who
achieved lasting fame by convincing the scientists of the evolution
and proposing the theory that this could be explained through
natural selection. This theory is now considered the central theory
in biology. Fully aware that others had been severely punished for
such 'heretical' ideas, he only confided in his closest friends and
continued his research. In recognition of Darwin's contribution to
the world's science, he was buried in Aufestminster Abbey, close to
Перевод текста: Outstanding People
1. История России изобилует великими именами во всех областях
науки и искусства.
2. Среди всех известных русских ученых есть некоторые, чей вклад в
науку наиболее значителен.
3. Жуковский был основателем современной аэро- и гидродинамики.
4. Циолковский был ученым, специализирующимся в области ракет и
пионером космонавтики, который создал теорию полетов в космос; он
рассчитал, что для того, чтобы покинуть Землю, нужна
многоступенчатая ракета на жидком кислороде и водороде, разработал
проекты ракет-носителей и космических станций, его работы дали
толчок работам немецких и американских ученых.
5. Менделеев был русским химиком, который являлся основным
создателем Периодической системы элементов, предсказавшим, таким
образом, свойства элементов и классифицировавшим их в соответствии с
этими химическими свойствами.
6. Другим ученым, который внес большой вклад в мировую науку, был
Павлов, русский физиолог и врач, который был награжден Нобелевской
премией в области физиологии и медицины.
7. Он впервые описал условное поведение, установив, таким образом,
основные законы условных рефлексов.
8. Многие русские писатели внесли вклад в мировую художественную
9. Пушкин широко известен как основатель русской литературы, впервые
использовавший разговорную речь и создавший свой стиль
повествования; его называют «солнцем русской поэзии».
10. Достоевский — гигант русской и мировой литературы, известный
своим пониманием человеческой души и интересом к греху и раскаянию,
а также своим ярким стилем.
11. Толстой — это русский писатель-романист, социальный реформатор и
мыслитель-моралист, известный как один из величайших писателей, чьи
книги являются вершинами реалистической художественной литературы.
12. Нельсон известен своим участием в войнах с Наполеоном и является
одним из самых известных командующих военно-морским флотом в мировой
13. Ньютон был английским физиком, математиком, астрономом и
изобретателем, который описал всемирное тяготение и три закона
14. Дарвин был британским естествоиспытателем, который стал
знаменитым, убедив ученых в существовании эволюции и естественного
1. The history of Russia abounds in great names in all fields of
science and arts.
2. Of all the famous Russian scientists, there are some whose
contribution to science is the most significant one.
3. Zhukovsky was the founding father of modern aero- and
4. Tsiolkovsky was a rockt scientist and pioneer of cosmonautics who
created the theory of space travel, he calculated that a multistage
rocket fuelled by liquid oxygen and hydrogen is required to leave
the Earth, designed multistage boosters and space stations; his
works gave an impetus to the works of German and American scientists.
5. Mendeleyev was a Russian chemist who was the primary creator of
the periodic table of elements, thus predicting the properties of
elements and classifying them according to their chemical properties.
6. Another scientist who contributed greatly to the world science
was Pavlov, a Russian physiologist and physician who was awarded the
Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.
7. He first described classical conditioning, that is established
basic laws for conditional reflexes.
8. A lot of Russian writers have contributed to the world's artistic
9. Pushkin is popularly known to be the founder of modern Russian
literature, to have pioneered the use of vernacular speech; he
created his own style of storytelling, and is named 'the sun of
10. Dostoevsky is a giant of Russian and world literature, famous
for understanding of the human soul and his interest in sin and
redemption, as well as for his powerful style.
11. Tolstoy is a Russian novelist, social reformer and moral thinker
known as one of the greatest of all novelists whose books stand at
the peak of realistic fiction.
12. Nelson is famous for his participation in the Napoleonic wars
and is one of the most famous naval commanders in world history.
13. Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer and
inventor who described universal gravitation and the three laws of
14. Darwin was a British naturalist who achieved fame by convincing
the scientists of the existence of evolution and natural selection.